Recently, the negotiations to establish lasting peace in Afghanistan have been held in different places and a couple of talks were organized with Taliban in Doha and Moscow. The US which is the ally of National Unity Government (NUG), after 17 years of war, wants to sign peace agreement with Taliban.
The US Envoy for Afghan Reconciliation Ambassador Khalilzad leads this process against Taliban to reach an agreement. In the latest effort in this regard, Khalilzad led the fifth round of peace talks with the Taliban in Doha, Qatar. This negotiation continued for 16 days in Doha with the Taliban political representatives, including the co-founder of this group, Mullah Baradar, who was released from the Pakistani jail to take part in this peace talks.
According to the statements by Khalilzad, major steps for peace have been taken in this peace talks session. He had said during the session, “Peace requires agreement on four issues: counter-terrorism assurances, troop withdrawal, intra-Afghan dialogue, and a comprehensive ceasefire. In January talks, we ‘agreed in principle’ on these four elements. We’re now ‘agreed in draft’ on the first two. He had also commented that a comprehensive peace agreement must guarantee that terrorism has no place in Afghanistan’s future. However, there are possibilities that the groups would meet again for talks, as Khalilzad had mentioned that nothing is agreed unless everything is agreed.
The peace process has two dynamics which is internal and external. In this article the question of how to maintain permanent peace in Afghanistan is discussed. And, certain points are put forward, which if utilized by the United States, the international community, government and the Afghan people, can stop the war and violence and lay the foundations for a peaceful future in our country since the Afghan officials and International community’s effort to maintain peace and stability in Afghanistan are not successful till now.
What is the main obstacle to maintain peace in Afghanistan?
This is a question for all the Afghans that want to know when peace will come in their country and everyone is impatiently waiting for that day. If three following factors are not considered, peace and security will never be maintained in Afghanistan.
1. Internal Factors
2. External Factors
3. Resource Constraints
1. Internal factors: The internal factors that hamper Afghanistan’s peace can reach hundreds, but a few important points are mentioned here;
Poverty, lack of employment and security, drug trafficking, lack of rule of law, lack of political and social justice, ethnic conflicts, lack of trust, stable governance, bureaucracy in government administration, lack of services to Afghan citizens, the totalitarianism of political and ethnic leaders are the factors that result in failure to achieve lasting peace. Moreover, the current political chaos and uncertainty created by Ghani administration has left little room for improvement. It even doubts the efforts of US regarding peace talks, though US is its major ally.
Solution: Formation of an interim government that should have the capacity to launch campaigns to address these issues. Moreover, an independent and non-governmental commission must be formed to support the government.
2.External Factors: There are many external factors that is are obstacle for peace and stability in our country. We are still suffering from Proxy war of different countries in our land. Because of geo-political and geo-economic position of our country, the imperialist countries have been influencing Afghanistan to ensure their national interest to expand their regional and global power and also compete with their political and economic rivals in Afghanistan or through Afghanistan.
Solution: In the external dimension, we need to identify external factors in order to reach a political solution. We can raise the concerns of the Afghan people for the interventionist countries in Afghanistan. If the affiliated countries do not cooperate with Afghanistan in order to provide security and peace, Afghanistan must approach the international organizations and other regional forums and groups. Nevertheless, currently, US seems ready to reach to a political solution to Afghan conflict and, in that regard, its envoy is in talks with Taliban as well. Hopefully, the concerns and interests of Afghan people will be considered in the ongoing peace talks or in its later stages.
For Afghanistan, it is vital to address both internal and external factors simultaneously. The current government does not have the capacity to do so as internal rifts among its own members have reached to maximum. It has even generated disunity and conflict among the political parties, movements and the government. In fact, it has not remained as the true representative of the people or their will. Therefore, the need of time to install an interim government that should pave the way for proper election that can result in formation of better government for the people.